Saturday, September 16, 2006

Food processing chain and The Flawed Interface Principle


While I was discussing with a friend, preparing a speech about complex system management, I realized that there is a close analogy between food processing industry (and its worst effects) and what usually happens on large complex systems.

Grandma’s good old taste
Suppose you want to make some pasta, tagliatelle Bolognese for example, that you used to like in your childhood (ok, it’s getting pretty clear that this post it’s gonna get targeted to Italian geeks that like to cook… a pretty narrow audience niche…).
You can go to the supermarket and buy the ingredients you need, but then you have to make a choice
  1. buy the “all-in-one” package that you just have to warm up (microwave or frying pan)

  2. buy the pasta and buy the sauce, cook the pasta and then mix it by yourself

  • buy the eggs, the floor, the meat and the vegetables and actually make the pasta and the sauce
If you are a good enough cooker, you’ll notice that there’s a close connection between how much time you spend in cooking, and the final result.

Still, even if good, the result still doesn’t taste as good as your grandma’s. Next step is forgetting about the supermarket and buy the staff straight from the farmer. Suddenly eggs start to taste differently and so do the vegetables.

Ok, in the end you have to surrender: you can’t beat your grandma in cooking. It’s just an axiom. But sometimes you can get close. The interesting thing is that once you managed to get that close to the taste of your childhood you can’t even think about eating option number one at the top of page. And even if the label (and the pictures) tries to tell you that it’s the same thing, you just know it’s a completely different stuff from what you really want.

Question is: “How could it get that far?”
The answer is pretty simple: by systematically doing a substitution of the original ingredient with its industrial equivalent. And here is where we get back to software.

The Flawed Interface Principle
The keyword is “substitution”, how could you possibly do that (remember the oop substitution principle…)? Because every ingredient’s decoy looks or smells (almost) like the original, and if you change only one ingredient the difference could be small enough to go unnoticed.
Put in another way, food decoys implement just part of the original ingredients’ interface, generally the look (maybe with the help of some good photographer), but not others, less documented or testable, such as smell, for example.


If you start reading labels of pre-prepared foods, you realize also that they have more than twice the ingredients needed of the original recipe. Stabilizers, preservatives, enhances, colourings (whose role is just to satisfy the visual interface), and so on.

The point is that nontrivial interfaces are seldom complete. Even if they can be thoroughly documented, there is probably nobody checking if the whole system can fit together (at least I’ve never seen it happening in the software development industry). Every component you add in a system has a burden of internal complexity (libraries, for example, but not only) that can’t be completely masked by encapsulation, but only 99%.
The net result in complex software systems is that if you consider that every implemented interface between components has a certain probability to be flawed, you come to the conclusion that every time you add (or more fashionably plug-in) some component in a complex system, you are getting one step closer to the whole system collapse.


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